relapsing fever - an acute infectious disease.The agents of relapsing fever are lice (epidemic relapsing fever) or mites (endemic relapsing fever).Proceeds disorder with alternating bouts of fever and remission periods.
Ill relapsing fever can be in all regions except Australia.The highest probability to be ill with typhus, and in the most severe forms - in Africa.Thus, died about 100 thousand people in the Sudan after the First World War, ten years of the disease.
Distributed relapsing fever, and in India, in Russia and in the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.In Iran, India, Southeast Asia, more common epidemic relapsing fever, caused by overcrowding of people in unsanitary conditions.In Europe, Asia, Africa and South America are the carrier of relapsing fever louse Pediculus kind, parasitic on humans.
in Europe, Asia, Africa, North and Central America common tick-borne relapsing fever.Carrier of relapsing fever ticks are kind Ornithodorus.
to the agents of relapsing fever spirochetes are genus Borrelia.Tick-borne relapsing fever is a zoonotic vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia are various kinds: B. saucasica V. latyschewii, V. hispanica, V. persica and V. duttonii.
According to its biological, morphological properties of these Borrelia similar to agents of epidemic typhus.
Carriers tick relapsing fever ticks are family Argas persicus, Argasidae, which are reservoir hosts of spirochetes.Moreover, the reservoir may be different Borrelia species of rodents.Mites are contagious during the whole period of life (about 10 years).Typically, human infection occurs as a result of a tick bite.This occurs most often in the warmer months in the period of activation of tick activity.
Carriers epidemic relapsing fever are lice P. humanus humanus (Hanging), Pediculus humanus capitis (head) and Phtirius pubis (pubic).Only people can get sick epidemic relapsing fever.
if it enters the human body are introduced cell lymphoid-macrophage system, which begin to multiply and in much larger quantities enter the blood.Under the influence of the blood bactericidal properties, they begin to break down in part to the release of endotoxin, which attacks the central nervous and circulatory system.The defeat of the systems is accompanied by fever, and liver and spleen appear foci of necrosis.Borrelia, lingering in the capillaries of the internal organs, disrupt local blood supply, thereby developing hemorrhagic infarction.
first period of the disease is accompanied by fever, it ends the production of antibodies to Borrelia organism of the first generation.As a result, most of the Borrelia dies, which is clinically expressed in the offensive period of remission.However, part of Borrelia changing its antigenic properties and is resistant to antibodies.They begin to multiply again, and if it enters the bloodstream causing another attack of fever.Antibodies generated against the second generation of Borrelia also destroyed most of them, but not all.This again triggers a relapse.Full recovery occurs only when there is a full range of blood antibodies that destroy all barrels mutations.At the same time after recovery persistent immunity to the disease does not occur, since the antibodies persist in the body for a short time.
first attack of relapsing fever begins suddenly.The patient experiences intermittent fever, which is replaced by an increase in temperature.It appears headache, pain in muscles and joints, vomiting, nausea.The temperature rises rapidly, the skin becomes dry, the pulse quickens, there is delirium.Peak attack is accompanied by a rash on the skin, development of jaundice and enlargement of the liver and spleen.While fever may develop pneumonia or bronchitis, signs of heart disease.The first attack lasts 2-6 days.Then comes the period of remission, the patient's condition improves.But after a few days of developing a second attack of the disease, which has similar symptoms.
For epidemic relapsing fever is characterized by a number of similar attacks, which usually ends in complete recovery and the onset of temporary immunity to the disease.For tick-borne relapsing fever is characterized by four or even more such attacks, which, however, have a more mild symptoms and continue lower.But it happens that a second attack occurs much more difficult than the first.
Relapsing fever is fraught with the development of complications: uveitis, meningitis, synovitis, ruptured spleen, iridocyclitis, iritis.
Diagnosis of the disease is based on epidemiological data and clinical manifestations.Important in the diagnosis of relapsing fever plays study peripheral blood.During the attack the patient's blood is fairly easy to detect the pathogen.
Treatment epidemic relapsing fever is the use of antibiotics (chloramphenicol, penicillin, chlortetracycline) and arsenic preparations (novarsenol).
For the treatment of endemic relapsing fever using tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol.
Prevention of disease is reduced to the fight against pathogens.Avoid contact with sick pediculosis.Currently, in our country and in other countries the epidemic fever is a rare disease.
Prevention of endemic relapsing fever is to protect people from exposure to ticks, as well as in the destruction of rodents and other vectors in natural foci.
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