12 August

Infectious arthritis - causes, symptoms , treatment

Infectious Arthritis Infectious arthritis

(pyogenic septic arthritis) - a complex infectious disease of the joints accompanied by fever, pain, chills, loss of mobility of the affected joints, swelling and damage them.

Disease susceptible people of all ages, including infectious arthritis occurs in children.In adults, the disease usually affects the knees or wrists.In some patients, symptoms are not observed in one and more joints.Infectious arthritis in children often causes arthritis and loss of knee, shoulder and hip joints.

In high-risk group includes the following categories of people:

  • with chronic rheumatoid arthritis;
  • recently received intra-articular injection;
  • recently undergone surgery or trauma to the joints;
  • with certain types of cancer;
  • homosexual (increased risk of gonococcal arthritis);
  • with systemic infections (HIV, gonorrhea);
  • diabetics and patients with sickle cell disease, or systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • with alcohol or drug dependence.

cause of infectious arthritis

Mostly causes infectious arthritis are fungal, viral or bacterial infections that enter into the joint with the blood flow.Also, the pathogen can enter into the joint during surgery or other means.The emergence of the pathogenic factor depends on the age of the patient.Infectious arthritis in children just born, usually caused by gonococcal infection transmitted from mother to child, sick with gonorrhea.Also, children can develop as a result of various hospital manipulation, including by inserting a catheter.

as pathogens in children up to 2 years in favor staphylococcus aureus or haemophilius influencae.In older children and adults can also become agents of streptococcus viridans and streptococcus pyogenes.As a rule, sexually active people infectious arthritis is a consequence of the infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Older people get exposed to Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, and Salmonella.

Symptoms of infectious arthritis

Mostly pyogenic arthritis begins suddenly.Sometimes infectious arthritis symptoms increase over several weeks.This swelling is accompanied by a damaged joint and increase his pain.

symptoms of infectious arthritis of the hip joint is a pain in the groin area that becomes very noticeable when walking.In most cases, the patient's body temperature rises, there is a fever.In children, infectious arthritis often causes nausea and vomiting.

local symptoms of infectious arthritis is a sharp pain on movement, pain in the joint, changing its contours, increasing swelling, violation of motor function of limbs, fever.

Complications of infectious arthritis

disease poses a direct threat not only to health, but also the life of the patient, as threatens the destruction of cartilage, bone or septic shock, which mainly leads to death.For example, Staphylococcus aureus can cause a very rapid destruction of cartilage, just a couple of days.Destruction of cartilage leads to displacement of bone joints.If

bacterial infection, it can spread to the blood and the surrounding tissue, causing abscess or septicemia.The most common complication of the disease is osteoarthritis.

diagnosis of infectious arthritis

correct diagnosis the doctor can only be made after delivery of appropriate laboratory tests, a careful study of medical records and a thorough examination of the patient.When the diagnosis should be aware that symptoms of septic arthritis can also occur in other diseases (rheumatic fever, gout, Lyme disease, etc.).

Sometimes the doctor refers the patient to additional consultation to a rheumatologist and orthopedic in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the following types of studies:

  • arthrocentesis for a detailed study of synovial fluid;
  • biopsy and culture of synovial tissue around the joint;
  • crops urine and blood and mucus from the cervix, etc.

In the early stages of septic arthritis hardware diagnostics is not effective (the first 10-14 days after infection).

infectious arthritis Treatment

As a rule, infectious arthritis patients treated for some time stationary, assigning him the medicines and techniques of physiotherapy sessions over several weeks or months.

If the disease is detected at a later stage and can cause serious disorders, doctors urgently start intravenous antibiotics.And after the detection of pathogen doctor appoint adequate treatment of infectious arthritis.

In viral infections prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents.The course of treatment with intravenous antibiotics up to two weeks, after which the patient prescribed a long course of oral antibiotics.

whole period of hospital treatment the patient is under the constant supervision of doctors.The patient takes a daily synovial fluid for analysis.This allows to determine the effectiveness of treatment.Since infectious arthritis is often accompanied by severe pain, the patient is prescribed painkillers.To prevent the joints from accidental and sudden movements, the patient may impose the tire.

In some cases, for the treatment of infectious arthritis is used surgery.It is used for those patients for whom antibiotic therapy is not effective or in case of serious lesions of the hip or other joints, of which is problematic to take a puncture.Surgical treatment is preferred in cases where infectious arthritis caused by penetrating or gunshot wound.

If the patient has already taken place a heavy defeat of cartilage and bone, can be used reconstructive surgery.However, the operation can be carried out only when the infection is completely gone from the body.

After discharge from the hospital, the patient is recommended to perform a special set of physical exercises that promote more rapid recovery.

Forecast infectious arthritis

favorable outcome of the disease depends largely on how quickly initiated adequate treatment of infectious arthritis.It should be noted that about 70% of the patients are avoided irreversible joint destruction, but many patients develop complications such as partial deformation of joints and osteoarthritis.Children with septic arthritis of the hip joint is often the case violation of bone growth zone.The most common causes of death are respiratory failure and septic shock.

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