Melanoma - a particular tumor in the human skin, which cells malanotsity, produce the pigment melanin.And since it affects the color of the skin, hair, and the retina of the human eye, one of the main symptoms of melanoma is the dark color of the tumor.
Melanoma - only one type of skin cancer pathologies.It is quite rare compared with other types of skin cancer, basal cell or squamous tumors.Melanoma is not more than 15% of all cases of skin cancer.
The most common symptoms of melanoma are diagnosed in the limbs and torso people with Eastern European skin type.Her feature - a pale white color and increased susceptibility to erosion during tanning.Patients with signs of melanoma is most often red or blond hair, blue, gray or green eye color.
provoking factor in the development of melanoma may serve as the resulting strong sunburn, the presence of venous ulcers or scarring in the limbs bend locations.The symptoms of melanoma are diagnosed more often
Melanoma - the extremely aggressive and dangerous disease.Timely diagnosis and successful treatment of melanoma - one of the most difficult problems of modern oncology.Every year, the disease is diagnosed in about 4 people per 100 thousand. Population.Guaranteed healing of disease is achieved only when the regional prevalence of the process in the early stages of melanoma.
melanoma Melanoma is not necessarily developed on the site of a mole or birthmark (nevus).Dark-colored asymmetrical forms of education may appear on the site with clean skin, devoid of any dark spots.
However, most often to malignancy (malignancy of the process) is inclined nevi almost black, dark gray or dark brown.An important sign of melanoma - the lack of vegetation on the hair nevus.Initially, it is also almost never rises above the surface of the skin.Over time, lentigo is beginning to change color, and the first sign of melanoma is the appearance of the skin at the site of the tumor pink-red, gray or white color.
Signs of melanoma in the later stages of development include bleeding, itching, pain, expression of, as well as the process of the emergence and spread of the tumor next to numerous pigmented spots.Melanoma average size of 6 mm in diameter.Behavior in terms of melanoma growth and metastasis unpredictable rate.
sign of melanoma type of surface - slow growth for several years.The rapid growth - especially skin cancer nodular.Symptoms of this type of melanoma include friability and susceptibility to skin ulceration at the site of the tumor.
Malignant lentigo and freckles Hutchinson are more typical for the elderly.Another type of melanoma, lentigo peripheral, usually occurs in people with darker skin color and are diagnosed at later stages of melanoma in connection with localization in remote places look, for example, on the sole.
any external suspicious tumor on the skin requires a careful attitude.At the first sign of melanoma diagnosis of the disease begins with a patient survey on timing of the appearance and behavior of the suspicious stains.After anamnesis and inspection neoplasms comes the turn of the laboratory tests for the diagnosis of melanoma.The first of them - a skin biopsy, the study under the microscope scraping the surface layers of the skin, performed under local anesthesia.
For diagnosis of metastatic melanoma tumors used aspiration biopsy, surgical biopsy of lymph nodes, chest X-ray, CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the whole body.Indications for this type of diagnosis is confirmed diagnosis of "melanoma" as a result of local tumors and biopsy poschupyvaemye tumor nodules in the lymph nodes.
Staging of melanoma - one of the most important prognostic factors in treatment.A sign of melanoma stage I and II is the localization of the tumor in the primary focus.In this case a positive outcome of the treatment of melanoma up to 99%.Metastases to regional lymph nodes - a symptom of melanoma stage III - positive results in the treatment of skin cancer is possible to achieve only 50% of cases.
In patients with stage IV melanoma prognosis sounds less optimistic, but, fortunately, skin cancer - one of the rare cancer, signs of which in most cases are diagnosed at stages I and II.To date, more than 40% of patients with symptoms of melanoma of the skin disease start treatment when the tumor thickness less than 0.75 mm.At this stage, surgical treatment of melanoma skin cancer successful in 97-99% of cases.
At the initial stage melanoma necessarily performed surgical excision of the tumor.It may be economical, with removal of less than 2 cm from the edge of the skin melanoma or broad skin resection to 5 cm border around the neoplasm.A unified standard in the surgical treatment of melanoma stage I and II in this regard is not.Wide excision of melanoma ensures a more complete removal of the tumor focus, but at the same time can be a cause of cancer recurrence at the site of the formed scar or transplanted skin flap.Melanoma type surgical treatment depends on the type and location of the tumor, the patient and solutions.
part of a combination treatment of melanoma is ppedopepatsionnaya tepapii radiation.It is indicated for the presence of ulcers in the tumor, bleeding and inflammation in the region of tumors.Local radiation therapy inhibits the biological activity of cancer cells and creates favorable conditions for the surgical treatment of melanoma.
As an independent method of treatment of melanoma Radiation therapy is rarely used.And in the preoperative period of treatment of melanoma its use has become common practice since the excision can be carried out the next day after the completion of radiation therapy.The interval for recovery between the two types of treatment for the symptoms of melanoma is usually not maintained.
controversial issue in the treatment of melanoma - prophylactic lymphadenectomy and removal of regional lymph nodes.When postoperative histological study they are struck by only 30% of cases.But since there is no reliable method for determining the status of the lymph nodes before surgery, usually with melanoma of the lower limbs removed pahobedpennye lymph nodes.When melanoma of upper limb performed excision of axillary lymph nodes.
results of chemotherapy in the treatment of melanoma with metastases unsatisfactory, so this type of therapy, skin cancer is almost never used.
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