12 August

Psittacosis - symptoms of infection , prevention and treatment


Brief description of the disease

Psittacosis - an acute infectious disease that manifests lesions of the central nervous system and lungs, fever, intoxication, an enlarged liver and spleen.Pathogen infections - chlamydia Chlamydia psittaci - gets into the human body from the external environment, where it can be stored up to 2-3 weeks, it develops intracellularly.

sources of infection psittacosis in humans are wild and domestic birds: ducks, turkeys, parrots, canaries, budgerigars and urban pigeons.The most common treatment for psittacosis is required for people who are constantly in contact with birds, in particular, employees of meat-packing plants and poultry farms.Basically psittacosis occur during the cold season, usually detected isolated cases of infection.Family outbreaks and epidemics are rare.Pathogen enters the body during inhalation of dust, which contains minute particles excreta of birds and, consequently, chlamydia.In addition, psittacosis in humans may occur after ac

cidental inhalation of particles down sick animals.Patients ornithosis not dangerous to others, and because they do not need urgent hospitalization in infectious department clinics or isolation from the rest of the family.

What happens after psittacosis infection?

So chlamydia overcome the protective barriers and entered the body through the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.After that, they quickly penetrate into the bronchioles and small bronchi, often reaching alevol that provokes inflammation.Reproduction pathogens occurs in the cells.If symptoms of psittacosis at diagnosis were misinterpreted and treated too late, chlamydia have time to get into the blood to cause intoxication and defeat of various organs and systems - from the adrenal glands to the central nervous system.Poisoning toxins due to the influence of both the pathogen and its metabolic products.

Sometimes the infection enters the body through the membrane of the digestive tract, rather than through the upper respiratory tract.In this case, psittacosis develops in the scenario described above, but without pneumonia, which is characteristic only for aerogenic infection.We note also that after a previous infection produced by the immune system, but it is short-lived and unstable, so there may be cases of recurrent disease.Donate here can only comprehensive prevention of psittacosis and regular inspections of poultry farms and other employees of enterprises working with birds.

symptoms of psittacosis and clinical picture

psittacosis incubation period ranges from 6 days to 2 weeks.Patients are acute and chronic diseases, with the acute form is divided into typical (pneumonia) and atypical (ornitozny meningitis, psittacosis in people without lung disease, meningopnevmoniya).

Acute psittacosis.It starts with a sharp rise in temperature (up to 39 degrees), after which the patient exhibits the following symptoms:

  • general weakness, fatigue;
  • headache;
  • decreased appetite;
  • severe pain in the muscles of the back and limbs;
  • runny nose, nasal congestion;
  • dry and scratchy throat.

After 2-4 days the first signs of lung disease: chest pain, worse when breathing, dry cough, mucopurulent sputum.Intoxication and fever during this period or kept at the initial level or increase slightly.If time does not diagnosing psittacosis in humans should be treated include the liver and spleen correction.At the end of the first week, they greatly increase in size, accompanied by vegetative-vascular disorders and fatigue, even with minor physical exertion.We also note that even after the normalization of the patient's condition, his health remains poor for a long time, due to the residual effect of toxins.Full recovery occurs only after 2-3 months after the start of treatment.

If psittacosis treatment was insufficient or completely absent, infection spills over into the chronic form.Patients ornithosis observed all the signs of bronchitis, long-term toxicity, permanent heat, which, however, rarely rises above 38 degrees.Chronic psittacosis can last 4-5 years and more.

Possible complications of psittacosis

The most dangerous consequences psittacosis include myocarditis, thrombophlebitis, development of acute heart failure and hepatitis.With the development of secondary infections in patients observed neuritis and purulent otitis.Pregnant women psittacosis often causes spontaneous abortion.Intrauterine infection does not occur.

Psittacosis in humans - treatment

disease the treatment of psittacosis patients prescribed antibiotics of tetracycline (vibramitsin, doxycycline, tetracycline).The course of treatment lasts for 4-7 days to reduce the temperature to a normal level, and then for a further 10 days to secure the results achieved.If patients have individual intolerance to tetracyclines, treatment of psittacosis suggests its replacement by chloramphenicol or erythromycin.They are less efficient because complete recovery patients may come much later.

Prevention psittacosis

Prevention psittacosis comes to the early detection of infection in poultry, pigeons and regulate the number of sanitary and veterinary measures at poultry farms and other businesses related to the rearing of poultry and meat processing them.To check the imported products necessary quarantine measures.Note that the prevention of psittacosis is the only way to prevent infections as a vaccine against this disease does not exist.

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