Characteristics of the main anatomical and physiological characteristics of children

Children's body is in a stage of development.Almost all of its systems.: Respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal, endocrine, etc. - are in a stage of steady growth.In contrast to the adult, baby, child, teenager is quite different indicators which differ from each other over time.Age-related anatomical and physiological characteristics of children must be considered in the diagnosis of pathological conditions and diseases.

Differences in the structure and functioning of the human organism during the period of growth and maturation determine the difference of approaches in diagnosis and treatment.Therefore, there is a separate science of medicine - pediatrics, which is divided into several disciplines:

  • Neonatology - treats newborns;
  • Medicine adolescence - examines the maturity of the human body.

Given the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children, almost all medical disciplines have a separate specialization, such as pediatric surgery, otolaryngology, dentistry, neurol

ogy, and so on.

most clearly visible anatomical and physiological characteristics of children in pharmacology.Medical preparations suitable for the treatment of adults, children are not always useful, so they are prohibited for use in pediatric patients in certain age periods.

Anatomical and physiological characteristics of children

After the birth and growth of the child's weight increases almost exponentially.So, in the second year of life is added every month by one centimeter, and 200-250 of the third year of life increases motor activity that requires much of the energy.At this time, the formation and maturation of the internal organs.On the part of the musculoskeletal system anatomical and physiological characteristics of children are in fairly rapid ossification of cartilage.The first ossification exposed periosteum, so fractures in children occur in an "twigs", when a broken bone is "hanging" on the whole the periosteum.Fracture of the child heals much faster than an adult.skeletal growth in humans continues to 21 years.

Anatomical and physiological characteristics of children during adolescence cause conditions such that although they are not the norm, but do not cause serious concerns for the health of the child.Recently, due to acceleration, the skeleton is growing much faster than a few decades ago.More and more cases of sudden syncope in adolescents, especially males.The explanation of such cases are the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children this time.When the bone tissue growth occurs - traction physiological age - Containers "do not have time to" grow in such an amount as to provide oxygen to the muscle power.Since the flow of nutrients is sharply increased, the oxygen flow to the brain is reduced, especially in the upright posture.As a result, the child faints.If something similar happens in the adult, it is indicative of serious pathology.

important role in the development of the child or of the other states have skin with an area with respect to the internal organs is much greater than that of an adult.And then the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children rise in most cases unfounded fears for the child's health.The fact that the subcutaneous tissue of the child is not sufficiently developed, as growth processes do not provide fat.This feature gives rise to the development diathesis and seizures during fevers.

In the early years of the life of the neuromuscular system of the child is in a state of hyper, so the baby determined tendon reflexes, which in the adult are considered pathological.This is also the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children who should not be confused with diseases of the nervous system.

digestive system is improved for several years.When a child is taken into account the ability of nutrition gastrointestinal digestion of certain foods.Only the eruption of the teeth indicates readiness to receive food "adult" products that require sufficient gall juice and digestive enzymes.

Age anatomical and physiological characteristics of children

age of children is divided into separate periods of his life, and each of them has its own characteristics, as in anatomy and physiology:

  • Infancy (birthup to one year of age).The greatest interest is the development of the nervous system, in particular, the visual analyzer.Age-related anatomical and physiological characteristics of children such that after giving birth to the second week of life, the child sees all things upside down.So look newborn "floating" because the child is difficult to focus vision, "compare" the external image with the visual analyzer of the higher nervous system;
  • Early childhood (1-3 years).During this period, the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children are to change the internal environment of the body.Indicators of blood and urine tests are closer to adult standards.Starts functioning endocrine glands.At this age, determined by character traits and congenital diseases;
  • Adolescence.Anatomical and physiological characteristics of children at this time are most pronounced in the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics.This age is characterized by the formation of abstract and analytical thinking.

When health care is always taken into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of children, use very different approaches, tools and medicines.

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