What does the presence of antibodies in the blood during pregnancy

One of the important indicators of pregnancy is the result of a blood test on the Rh-affiliation.When detected a negative Rh factor, technicians continue to study and identify the presence of antibodies during pregnancy, so their presence is indicative of the possible complications.The essence of the conflict in the "mother-fetus" system is that the embryo of a pregnant is a half-alien body.rejection reaction "graft" takes place in different ways:

  • Early toxicosis;
  • Preeclampsia second half of pregnancy;
  • The conflict or blood group Rhesus affiliation.

most dangerous reaction occurs at the level of blood cells - red blood cells.All the organs of the body are fed through the red blood cells when they are destroyed, there comes a state of oxygen deficiency, which leads to irreversible consequences.That is why it is so important to analyze for the presence of antibodies during pregnancy if the expectant mother Rh-negative blood affiliation.

antibodies in the blood during pregnancy

antibodies - immune system cells is responsible for the recognition and destruction of foreign elements.They may be bacteria, viruses, toxic substances, as well as the body's own cells or fetus.

Rh blood factor is an individual marker.It is either present in the membranes of erythrocytes, or not.Therefore, the blood of people studied may be Rh-positive or Rh-negative.There laboratory cases when the same female rhesus is positive, and in the subsequent assays, it did not exhibit.Inexplicably it becomes the result of the analysis of antibodies in the blood during pregnancy with a positive Rh factor.But everything is explained from the genetic point of view.

mechanism of formation of the Rh factor

blood Rhesus factor is inherited by two pairs of alleles.Genes under the designation D and d represent the dominant and recessive inheritance.When the fetus is dominated by dominant alleles (DD), a blood test for Rh positive.If recessive (dd), respectively, - negative.Any other combination of genes: dD or Dd, - showing a positive reaction.If the dominant alleles less than 25% - in the analyzes of the rhesus appears and is not detected ( "disappeared").Therefore, antibodies during pregnancy can occur even when the "negativeĀ» (dD) or "weakĀ» (Dd) rhesus factor blood.

inheritance mechanism also explains why parents who do not have monkey may be born Rh-positive baby.At the "mixing" genes had formed a pair carrying a dominant gene.That's all.

Effect of antibodies during pregnancy on the fetus and newborn

Rhesus conflict arises only when the baby is Rh marker, and in the mother's blood, he is completely absent.When finding the fetus in the womb is an active erythrocytes gas exchange between mother and fetus.When both erythrocyte charged the same - nothing happens.But the "plus" is attracted to the "minus" and two cells stick together.To prevent agglutination, there are antibodies in the mother's blood during pregnancy, which are deposited in the red blood cells of the fetus.As a result of the mother's blood it remains intact, but the child's red blood cells are collected immune cells, which gradually destroys the protein component of hemoglobin.

in early pregnancy is threatened abortion.In the late - development of hemolytic jaundice with the defeat of the blood-forming organs and the child's brain.

antibody titer during pregnancy

titer is called the number of certain parameters in the analysis.When a woman develops pregnancy, with the proviso that the fetus has Rhesus positive blood antibody produced class "M".Their molecular weight is so high, that the cells do not penetrate the vascular wall chorionic and placental barrier.But when repeated pregnancy, antibodies are found in maternal blood (they are formed immediately and remain on the rest of his life), but is now produced by the cells 'rapid response' - class immunoglobulins G. They pass freely through natural filters and can cause a reaction of rejection, soand hemolytic disease of the fetus or newborn.During the registration determine the antibody titer during pregnancy, which must check in dynamics.Periodic blood tests are carried out, during which determine the growth of antibody titer.Either it stays the same or increases.In this matter at the numbers and the rate of increase in the amount.With the accelerated increase in titer made the necessary arrangements.Generally, treatment is limited to therapeutic methods.

Currently, control of the amount of antibodies produced during pregnancy on a regular basis, allowing you to choose the right tactics in childbirth.They are produced according to plan, that is, either conservative or operative.It does not depend on the amount of antibodies in pregnancy, but affects the additional steps of hemolytic disease of the newborn prevention.In special cases, the child made a blood transfusion, and to all this manipulation should be prepared in advance.

What rate of antibodies during pregnancy should be?

tests for antibodies during pregnancy are taken regularly in cases where an expectant mother revealed Rh-negative blood affiliation.As a rule, no fear of blood tests do not cause.The doctors did not report an increase in antibodies, because it is not observed.Perhaps, however it is believed that the antibodies in pregnancy rate are some.In fact, their presence is not indicative of any norm or pathology.If there is a sharp increase in numbers the immunoglobulin G, the woman offered to give birth in a perinatal center, or in the regional maternity ward with intensive care for newborns.

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