During the growth of the human body undergoes many changes during certain periods - crisis.Meaning of the word "crisis" from a medical point of view, different from the usual in society.The economy is very unfavorable time, after which it is difficult to expect immediate improvements.In medicine, used the original meaning of the Greek word «krinein» - «share».That is, the crisis is a sharp transition from one state to another, qualitatively changed.In pediatrics child development stages are separated by critical periods.It is the most vulnerable time for the body, but after the crisis organism acquires new qualities, goes to another level of existence.Changes anatomical and physiological characteristics, the child grows up and approaches the level of adult life.
There are different classifications that try to reflect the child's stages of development in relation to the industry:
Teachers determine age learning opportunities for children, the level of thei
Legal classification determines the degree of accountability to the law and provides property and other rights of minors.
Psychology examines the stages of a child's development in terms of formation of the person, taking into account the hereditary and acquired skills of communication in society.
Medical classification considers childhood as a period of the initial segment of life in which children of certain age groups have their own anatomical and physiological characteristics.In terms of genetics, child development stages include the very initial period of existence, since the formation of the zygote.This is the first crisis in human life.Completion of childhood in terms of medicine ends with puberty.
Accordingly aged man childhood life are divided into time intervals.Medical classification takes into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the organism, as applied to medical diagnosis and treatment methods.Many sections do not appear to be acceptable to society, pedagogy, jurisdiction, but the age stages of child development, one way or another, starting from the first moment of conception, and are divided into the following periods:
Prenatal stage of development of the child lasts for 280 days, or 10 lunar months.In this period of life are determined by the three points of crisis development of the fetus:
Each segment of fetal life there are processes tab and the formation of internal organs.It is of great importance for the prevention of congenital diseases.Eliminating harmful factors selected appropriate and safe medications for the expectant mother.
neonatal stage of child development covers the first four weeks of life.This is the neonatal period, which is characterized by adaptation to life after a prenatal visit.At this time, the child's body is in a constant struggle with aggressive environmental factors.
in infancy there is further adaptation.Children who are breastfed are more resistant to infection, because they are protected by the mother's immune system.Nonetheless, many processes in the body of a baby in this time tend to generalize.So, febrile reaction almost all children accompanied by convulsive syndrome.By one year of age the chest stage of child development ends.The child is fully adapted to the environment.
pre-preschool development period lasts from one to three years.Children are at the age to infections due to increased contact with their peers.In such a short period of time pass all the stages of a child's speech, so the children are subject to compulsory inspection of a speech therapist.This is the time of childhood infections:. Chickenpox, measles, scarlet fever, mumps, etc.
Preschool child development stage lasts from three to seven years.There is a noticeable reduction in the growth of body weight, but the growth of limbs continues.In the six years of primary teeth start replacing permanent.Pathological processes lose their systemic nature of the disease and lesions limited to individual organs.
In the early school period, childhood highest load undergoes skeletal system, carried out prevention of spinal curvature.Changing the power at this stage of child development pathology provokes the development of the gastrointestinal tract.Children suffer from non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, which is manifested disease of "dirty hands": intestinal infections, worm infections, acute hepatitis.
Puberty, that is, the final stage of a child's development, characterized by the development of secondary sexual organs, beginning with 12 years.By 16 years of clinical manifestations of disease occur adolescents as well as adults.
Critical periods define the transitions from one state to another child's body.Therefore, the main stages of development of the child are separated following crises:
In some countries, the law defines the age of majority at 21 years, based on the level of development of the higher nervous activity.From the point of view of the physiology of the final formation of the person completes 25 years.
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