Marginal placentation - causes and possible complications

By the end of 16 weeks of pregnancy in the woman's uterus is formed organ - the placenta (afterbirth), which provides a link between the mother's body and the baby.It is through her made-natal development, breathing and nutrition of the fetus, as well as the removal of metabolic products.

Externally placenta resembles a disc, the diameter of 15-20 cm, thickness - 4.2 cm and weight 500-600 g, which is 1/6 the weight of the fetus.In the normal course of pregnancy, its location is in the area of ​​the uterus, not adjacent toward throat, but there are cases when the placenta is in the wrong way.

Fetal part of the body is covered with fibers that supply the capillaries of the umbilical vessels, the umbilical cord is attached to it.Through the maternal part of the body itself placenta pass 180-320 spiral arteries, which in the space of intervillous maternal blood flows.Then the blood flowing in the marginal sinus of the placenta and into the veins - so made the blood flow in both directions.

Marginal placenta previa include incomplete previa, when the lower part of its body is flush with the edge of the internal os.

Causes of the edge of the placenta

There are two groups of factors that provoke an abnormal location of the placenta in pregnant women.The first group includes factors associated with structural features of the ovum.As a result of a violation of the process of implantation of the trophoblast and late manifestations of enzymatic action fertilized egg can not be implanted in a timely manner in the upper section of the uterus, the consequence of which is the emergence of the edge of the placenta.

The second group includes factors that depend on the characteristics of the organism and health of pregnant women, namely:

  • Pathological changes in the endometrium that violate normal decidual reaction;
  • fibroids or underdeveloped uterus;
  • Endometriosis or endocervite;
  • Multiple pregnancy.

If the attachment is stored in the 28 week of pregnancy, and further, such a state is called the marginal placenta previa.

detect marginal placenta can be with ultrasound, the doctor may also suspect an abnormality on the basis of complaints pregnant.

Symptoms boundary placenta

main manifestation of marginal placenta previa is spotting occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy on the 28-32 week, as well as directly during childbirth.

bleeding at the boundary placenta have a number of features - they suddenly start without any external cause, and often accompanied by pain.They can then be repeated with a greater or less frequently, it is difficult to determine in advance what they will be for the duration and strength.When you break the marginal sinus placenta praevia is accompanied by particularly severe bleeding.

When the diagnosis of marginal placenta attachment expectant mother requires frequent and careful medical supervision, as well as the timely implementation of all the necessary research.Often in pregnant hemoglobin begins to decrease, so they prescribe drugs containing iron.The only way to avoid frequent bleeding, and the rapid development of anemia.

consequences of regional attachment of the placenta

This pathology is fraught with bleeding, there is a strong possibility that the baby can pinch the placenta during childbirth, thereby stopping the access of oxygen to himself.

When the diagnosis of "marginal placenta" doctors will insist on delivery by Caesarean section.Fortunately, if there is no premature detachment of the placenta, on the development of the baby potologii has no effect.

Marginal placenta previa: treatment

There are several ways to lift the edge of the placenta - it can be a medical treatment or physiotherapy as electrophoresis with vitamins.Women in the treatment of marginal placenta previa is recommended to wear a special bandage every day for a few minutes to take the knee-elbow position (4-5 times a day), as well as to avoid even minimal physical exertion and sexual intercourse.

Subject to the doctor's recommendations, there is a high probability that the placenta rises to an adequate level, so many manage to avoid cesarean delivery or complications during delivery.According to statistics, in 5% of cases after 32 weeks of pregnancy the placenta is retained edge, so timely treatment can guarantee a quite prosperous generations.

Marginal placenta - presentation, which greatly complicates the generic activities.In this condition the likelihood of perinatal death is 7-25% depending on the age of the pregnant woman.Such pathology is found mainly in multiparous women and accompanied by multiple bleeding.

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