The degree of maturity of the placenta - the norm and pathology

word "placenta" literally means "child seat".The body is attached to the uterine wall in the place where there was the implantation of a fertilized egg.The placenta is formed from the primary CVS, which "borrows" the mechanism of gas exchange between the blood of mother and fetus.The vessels of the placenta are more developed, have a branched structure and a kind of filter - barrier against the penetration of harmful substances to the fetus, which circulate in the mother's blood.

Depending on the state of child seats vessels determine the degree of maturity of the placenta, which should closely match the duration of gestation and indirect evidence on the state of health of the fetus.maturity parameter is determined only on the ultrasound, it is an additional diagnostic feature of fetal development and maternal health.According to the degree of maturity of the placenta is predicted onset of labor, including the threat of termination of pregnancy.In total there are three degrees of child seats:

  • zero;
  • first;
  • second;
  • Conditionally define the third stage of development, which is regarded as the degree of aging of the placenta, and is fully prepared to leave.

degree of placental maturity 0

degree zero indicates complete formation of the placenta as a body, and is determined on the gestation of the founding body (16-18 weeks) to 30 weeks.

At this time echographic placenta image shows its homogeneous structure.When the degree of maturity of the placenta 0, it performs the function:

  • gas exchange - the supply of fetal blood oxygen and excretion into the maternal circulation of carbon dioxide;
  • nutrient delivery into the bloodstream of the fetus;
  • excretion elements fetal life;
  • Safety - does not pass into the blood of the child bacteria, toxins and other harmful substances;
  • Immune - filters flow to the fetus the mother of antibodies that protects the embryo from the reaction of rejection as half of foreign genetic material;
  • Endocrine - synthesize and secrete human chorionic gonadotropin, prolactin, placental lactogen and other hormones necessary for pregnancy and fetal development.

When the degree of maturity of the placenta 0, it performs all the basic functions, with the exception of the preparation of the mother's body for childbirth.The next stages in the development of the placenta indicate increased functional load, that is, do not reflect the qualitative characteristics of the body, but evidence of the intensity of the work of child seats.

When up to 30 weeks, found 1 degree of maturity of the placenta or the next stage of development of the body, such condition indicates high load.It is triggered in cases where mother's blood contains harmful substances for combating placenta which operates in two to three times more intense.The toxins of tobacco smoke, alcohol, narcotics and drugs always lead to premature ripening, which is defined as the degree of aging of the placenta, regardless of gestational age.It should be noted that this process is completely reversible, provided the termination of admission to the mother's body of harmful substances, and timely treatment.

1 degree of maturity of the placenta

From a morphological point of view, during the pregnancy up to 36 weeks of the placenta is in the growth stage.There is an increase in body mass and growth villous tree.The total area of ​​the villi are constantly expanding due to branching vessels, each arm of which is divided into a few new ones.At 1 degree of maturity of the placenta villous surface of contact with the mother's blood is 6.8 square meters!

ultrasound picture shows a child seat villous tree branch to II-III order.The structure of the placenta during pregnancy in homogeneous, basement membranes chorionic fit snugly to the walls - seen clearly at the border line which has no twists.Morphological changes in the structure of the placenta occurs after 30 weeks of pregnancy.

2 maturity

placenta at 30 weeks and almost up to the birth of the placenta structure undergoes various changes.50-60% of the branches of the tree of human chorionic stop dividing, formed terminal villi, within which there are various processes to ensure the body functions.This special kind of nap settlers, in the cavities of which are neutralized toxic substances.So at 2 degrees of maturity of the placenta are protected not only fruit, but the mother's body.The boundary of the basement membrane acquires a zigzag shape, which greatly increases the contact area of ​​the vessels in the "mother-fetus" system.

image on the ultrasound is not uniform, there are periods, commas, dotted lines.In some cases, the formed visible cavities filled with fluid - cysts.Inside these tanks biochemical reactions occur.Occurrence of caverns under 2 degrees of maturity of the placenta in the recent past it was considered a sign of pathology, but to date the experience of doctors allows diagnosticians to conclude that the cysts in the placenta structure are functional and reversible changes.By 36-37 weeks of pregnancy terminates growth of child seats, and the increased thickness of the placenta suggests developing edema.The effusion of the liquid component of blood vessels in the space around, squeezes them, making it difficult for blood flow in the "mother-fetus" system.

degree of maturity of the placenta 3

third stage of development of the children's place is essentially a preparation for an early rejection of the placenta in the third stage of labor.On ultrasound morphological changes determined by testifying about the expiring body functions.The vessels dilate, their walls become thinner.In the field of physiological extensions formed calcifications.If this happens to 36-37 weeks of pregnancy, it is about the degree of aging of the placenta, which occurs prematurely.With timely diagnosis and adequate treatment of this process is also reversible.A successfully completed preeclampsia therapy usually takes maturity of placenta 3 in the second stage of development.

in 37-40 weeks of pregnancy increase children's place stops and starts an involution.Many of the functions of the placenta stops, because their job cancel endocrine organs of the fetus, producing the necessary hormones.In terms of morphology, the degree of maturity of the placenta 3 is an end-stage organ temporary life.Under normal conditions, it does not require any medical intervention.If there is an early level of the placenta aging, it is necessary to take all measures to stop the process of involution of child seats.

Since the placenta structure can only be determined by ultrasound in the clinical diagnosis of the degree of maturity of the placenta may not be imposed, but is one of the important diagnostic features.

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