Violation of intellectual development - Causes, training

happens that a child is very different from his peers - he can not cope with what comes easily to other children, and his mental development does not meet the standards.Now these children prefer to call a "special child".Violation of intellectual development of the child is a great test and grief for parents.Not all are able to withstand this burden, knowing that the future of their baby can be a social outcast.Meanwhile, disturbances of mental development of children is often amenable to correction.

mental disabilities or norm

During diagnosis of mental development of the child experts use rules that are actually averages, so rather relative.So what if the baby develops movement skills, speech or learning a little later, that is no reason to believe that he has mental disabilities.It happens that children at an early age there is some discrepancy standards of intellect or the mind, but at an older age, they just show outstanding results.

Sometimes parents are beginning to be alarmed if their child

tells totally up to two years.In fact - this is normal, because in this period there is an accumulation of vocabulary.Then these children begin to speak at once good and plentiful.In some cases, you need to assume that the child has observed violations of intellectual development?

First and foremost it is worth noting that children with mental disabilities have a rather strong deviations of brain activity.They are absent or weakly expressed attention, interest in learning, curiosity, thirst for new knowledge.In addition, children with impaired mental development characterized by personal immaturity, and their mental development quite noticeably lags behind age norms.In infancy, these babies have weak sucking and grasping reflexes.Also, a certain defect pointed out by some physical features.If you have mental development disorders at birth children have low weight, disproportionate body, small or, on the contrary, a large head.

Types of violations of intellectual development

To date, experts distinguish the following groups of children with intellectual disabilities:

  • children with mental retardation (Oligophrenic underway retardation, imbecility, idiocy);
  • children with mental retardation (reversible fully or partially);
  • Children with impaired mental development or dementia (this is often preceded by a period of normal mental development);
  • the deficit Children with developmental or sensory disability (with hearing, vision, musculoskeletal system);
  • Children with symptoms of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, hysteria, or epilepsy;
  • Children psihopataticheskimi behaviors, including early infantile autism.

necessary to distinguish between mental retardation and mental retardation.When mental retardation observed over gross violations of intelligence and mental health.In this case, the violation of intellectual development are irreversible, the dynamics of their development is characterized by the severity of the condition and prognosis of further disintegration of functions.In special cases, the correction of such violations is virtually impossible.

Children with mental retardation are some of its features, but their development correction is not only possible but also quite successful.It happens that later these children catch up with their peers even in development.

Another case - the development of mental disorders in children suffering from birth defects of hearing, vision, speech apparatus.At birth, their brains are in the normal range, but do not develop in the first days of life due to reduced vision or hearing.The result is a backlog in intellectual development.In this case, the correction also brings very tangible results.

Causes of Child Development

There are a number of reasons, which ultimately can cause disturbances of mental development in children - genetic damage, injury or physical underdevelopment as a result of poor nutrition.It happens that a violation of brain activity in a child occur before birth, during birth or in early childhood.

mental retardation often accompanied by other diseases - epilepsy or cerebral palsy, sometimes it is related to autism.With regard to genetic diseases, can cause disturbances of mental development, among them can be called muscular dystrophy, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis.In addition, the causes of violations of children's development may be unexplained changes in the chromosomes - Down syndrome.

Infectious diseases transferred woman during pregnancy - rubella, toxoplasmosis, taking certain medications, excessive alcohol and drug use can also cause disturbances of mental development of the child.Other causes of violations of children's development - a difficult pregnancy, during which the observed oxygen starvation of the fetus, birth asphyxia and birth trauma, certain infectious diseases transferred in early childhood intoxication.

happens that the mental retardation observed in the absence of education on the part of parents who are not involved with the child, a little talk with him.Or when a child at an early age, for whatever reasons, is isolated from the mother.In these cases the correction is mostly succeeds.

children, if they have mental development disorders, needed more time to study or acquire any skills.But this does not mean that engage with these children do not need, and they can not be development.Just to them need a special approach.And parents need to have patience and faith in your child.And most importantly - never compare it with other children.

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