intellectual disabilities in children is characterized by doctors as mental retardation caused by different severity and localization of organic lesion of the central nervous system.Children with such disorders, depending on the degree of symptoms need extra care on the part of parents and professionals who are able to facilitate the subsequent adaptation of the child to life in society.
One of the main characteristics of children with intellectual disabilities is firmly marked reduction activities aimed at the knowledge of the world.According to the degree of mental retardation and learning doctors subdivide such deviations on:
addition allocate a separate group of children with mental retardation.In this case, especially for children with intellectual disabilities are considerable difficulties in the study of objects primary school program.These children can not be attributed to the mentally retarded, because they have shown enough ability to communicate and a broad zone of proximal development.Causes of mental retardation can be different.There are psychic and psychophysical infantilism related to:
Such children with intellectual disabilities, in some cases, may attend secondary schools.However, if the violations prevail expressed tserebrastenicheskom disorder, they need both in therapeutic activities, and in the psychological and pedagogical correction.
Depending on the reasons that led to the development of disorders, and the effects of time harmful factors, doctors distinguish between a variety of options abnormalities in cognitive activity and emotional and volitional.Common to all types of mental retardation are the following features:
When teaching children with intellectual disabilities, as well as for their social adaptation in preschool institutions and schools of special education methods are used - Correctional.
children with the most profound degree of mental retardation - an idiot, are not subject to training, and in most cases with the consent of the parents are in institutions where they are given the necessary care and medical assistance.Upon reaching adulthood they are transferred to special homes for the chronically ill.
children with impaired intellectual development, is characterized as imbecility, practically teachable even at a special school because of the deep flaws of perception, memory, motor skills, thinking, speech communication and emotional and volitional.Before reaching the age of majority children with these disorders in most cases they are in special children's homes, where they receive the necessary extent the elementary skills of writing, reading and numeracy and some simple work operations on a specially designed program for these children.This opens up the prospect for them to continue working in specially organized workshops.
Education of children with intellectual disabilities in the form of retardation should be held in institutions of the program, allowing them to master written and oral expression, numeracy, the concept of number.Difficulty learning due to the fact that these children have difficulty in understanding the relationships between sounds and letters, and sets a numeric expression, it is impossible to establish and understand the temporal, spatial and causal relationships between objects and phenomena.
intellectual disabilities in children in the form of developmental delay is usually manifested in the formation of the main difficulties of mental operations - synthesis, analysis, comparison and generalization.In addition, the inability to plan their activities and other features characteristic of these children, create some difficulties in teaching in secondary schools.
Because of the backlog stable in most subjects and ridicule from peers, these children develop a negative attitude towards the learning process and is often observed injury psyche.For this reason, these children more humane in primary school teaching in special educational institutions.In most cases, with the right approach it is possible to lay the necessary knowledge and training to instill the skills that allow them to transfer later to a regular school.
Children with intellectual disabilities require an integrated approach, both by doctors and by the teachers.Since every human life is priceless, it is necessary to use every opportunity to ensure that a child with such disorders could develop as much as possible its available capacity and easier to adapt to adult life.
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