Children with hearing impairment - especially , training, education

Hearing loss - the loss of the human body's ability to detect all of the frequencies, or to distinguish between the sounds of low amplitude.There are congenital or acquired, complete (deafness) or partial (deafness) hearing loss.

congenital or acquired deafness in children leads to lower intelligence, and mental retardation, sharply reduces the ability to perceive the child's own voice and speech of people around, so children with a hearing disorder is quite difficult to learn to talk.

Hearing impairment is the most common disorders in infants.According to statistics, 1-2 children in a thousand are born with deafness or severe hearing impairment.

Causes of hearing loss in children can be:

  • Inborn errors transmitted genetically;
  • insufficient birth weight (less than 1.5 kg);
  • diseases of the inner ear and the auditory nerve;
  • deviations arising before, during or after childbirth;
  • inflammation of the middle ear and some infectious diseases (meningitis, influenza);
  • injury or prolonged exposure to lo
    ud noise and vibration;
  • congenital anatomical defects of the head and neck.

leading doctors of the world believe that the pathology of the auditory system significantly affect not only the development of speech, but also on the anatomical, physiological and psychological development of the child.

Since deafness is not a visible disorder, it can only identify with a universal neonatal screening - the latest technology is widely used in the West.Without screening recognize how bad the child hears, only when he was 2-3 years.

At the same time, we know that the most important for language and speech development of a child's first year of life.If adjust his hearing with the help of hearing aids during that period, there is a great likelihood that the vocal apparatus of the child will develop normally.Timely correction increases the chances of children with hearing impairment to normal physical and psychological development.

Characteristics of children with hearing impairment

Partial or total deafness deprives the child of an important source of information and thus limits the process of intellectual development.Hearing loss has a direct impact on the development of the child's vocal apparatus and indirectly on the formation of thinking and memory.Since the behavioral and personality characteristics of children with hearing impairment are not biologically determined, is to create appropriate conditions to their greatest extent can be adjusted.

leading role in the knowledge of the world of children with complete or partial deafness plays vision, as well as motor, sensory and tactile and vibration sensation.

number of features different memory partially or completely deaf children, as the pace of language development have slowed down, slowed down accordingly and verbal memory.Slow formation of speech in turn influences the abstract thinking of children with hearing impairment.

Statistically hearing loss in children is accompanied by:

  • In 80% of cases of delayed motor development;
  • In 62% of cases of disharmonious physical development;
  • In 43.6% of the defects of the musculoskeletal system;
  • In 70% of cases observed comorbidities.

main characteristics of children with preschool hearing are:

  • lag their developmental needs an average of 1-3 years of hearing peers;
  • Lack of physical activity;
  • Violation of coordination and the low level of orientation in space;
  • Slow speed of individual movements and rate of motor activity in general;
  • difficulty in shifting attention;
  • whole memorizing process is based on visual images;
  • sensitivity to changing climatic conditions.

A child with hearing loss is slowing down the process of assimilation of information and there is difficulty in communicating with others, which can not but affect the formation of his personality.

difficulty in contacting relationship and identity with ordinary children can lead to the formation of such negative traits and characteristics of children with hearing impairment, aggressiveness and isolation.However, the timely provision of remedial assistance, any deviation in the development of the individual can be overcome.

Rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment

measures aimed at the rehabilitation of children with hearing impairments, should start to apply as soon as the child is 2-3 years.Reduction of hearing-impaired children are engaged in specialized kindergartens and schools, where with the help of voice sessions using hearing aids to overcome the consequences of the defect.

Early identification of a child's hearing loss and the use of rehabilitation measures is the key to his successful recovery.At home, the rehabilitation of children with hearing loss occurs through natural speech communication with parents and people with normal hearing and speech.This component of the recovery process requires that the parents of the child hard of hearing much effort and patience, as to pronounce the words clearly and slowly, the movement of the lips and tongue must be clearly visible to the child.

Education of children with hearing impairment

the hearing impaired and deaf children are fully behind their hearing peers in development for several years.To overcome the need for a holistic developmental disorders and social in nature impact on individuals, so the education of children with impaired hearing should be conducted in specially organized educational and training institutions.

In such institutions established special conditions to enable children to overcome the effects of the defect, to fix the broken course of formation of the person, to correct or recreate the most important mental properties.Special education for children with hearing impairment allows to generate their speech, conceptual thinking and verbal memory.

in schools for hearing impaired children are taught to read lips, pedagogical process aimed at filling the gaps of development, and applied language learning system allows to master different types and forms of speech activity.

special role in the education of children with hearing impairment are playing graphic-effective means and techniques (mime, dramatization and staging), because they help generate ideas and concepts on the first visual-shaped, and then at the level of abstract generalities.

Hearing impairment in children is the most common defect.Parents have a very early age the baby to pay attention to his behavior: if the child is under the age of 6 months little or does not respond to auditory stimuli, and closer to year does not pronounce vowels - the probability of hearing loss.

diagnosis and detection of defects at an early stage allows time to correct it with the help of hearing aids, which increases the chances of children with partial hearing loss to maintain a normal lifestyle.

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