Sensitization - concept , examples and adaptation

Sensitization - a strengthening of the sensitivity of the nerve centers under the influence of the stimulus.Increased sensitivity may occur in the process of significant signal expectations, gain experience or as a result of exercise.It may be due to specific requirements arise from activities or sensory impairment compensation.An example of sensitization in the first case can serve as a high susceptibility to the eyes of the artist forms the proportionality and coherence of colors and shades.In the second - a worsening of hearing sensitivity and distance to obstacles in the blind.

Sensitization, Adaptation and synesthesia directly related to the sensitivity of the analyzer and the changes are qualitative characteristics of sensations.

Sensitization Sensitization sensations

sensations is an increase in sensitivity, which is influenced by the following external factors:

  • System work analyzers, and their interaction.At low intensity of sensations one modality enhances the feeling of another modality
    .For example, with a slight cooling of the skin appears luminous sensitization;
  • pharmacological effect on the body.Introduction of various substances, such as adrenaline or amphetamine, causing significant aggravation of receptor sensitivity;
  • Psychological installation.Waiting for an event especially meaningful, able to adjust to a clearer perception of stimuli.So the upcoming visit to the dentist can cause strengthening of toothache;
  • experience gained.During execution of an activity gradually develop certain sensory systems.As an example, you can cause sensitization of experienced tasters who conduct sensory analysis on the subtle nuances, and musicians, vary by rumors about the duration of the notes.

As a result of strong excitation of some analyzers can occur reducing the sensitivity of others.Desensitization is typical, for example, for industrial shops workers, as the high noise level somewhat impairs vision.

Compensatory sensitization occurs when oppression or absence of various types of sensations when this deficiency is compensated for by increasing susceptibility to other analyzers.For example, improving hearing in the dark.

Sensitization and adaptation

If sensitization is associated only with the increase in sensitivity, depending on the psychological or physiological factors caused by the adaptation of the environment and is characterized by a gain, and the weakening of sensations.Adaptive abilities manifested, for example, when a sharp change in illumination level - need some time to eyes adjusted to the darkness or bright light.

On Feel severity distinguish two types of adaptation:

  • Anesthesia.Occurs when the continuous action of the stimulus, which leads to the complete disappearance of sensations.For example, during the day people do not feel the touch of clothing or do not pay attention to the wedding ring;
  • blunting the intensity of feelings.Expressed as a reaction to strong stimuli.It can be addictive to a sharp smell in hospitals or in the perfume shop.

Synthesis of adaptation and sensitization carried out by structuring disordered elements.Painting near can look as chaotic color spots, which over time becomes visible picture.In the constant background noise is gradually possible to distinguish individual sounds.That is, in the process of adjusting to the intense external stimulus analysis it is possible, and attention focus on individual elements enhances susceptibility thereto.

Sensitization and synesthesia

Sensitization and synaesthesia - sensations are closely related properties.When synesthetic perception of irritation of a sensory organ is accompanied by sensations, corresponding to another body.The most common example of sensitization to the change of modality is the emergence of a sour taste with a lemon.Also, quite often there are visual images while listening to music or reading.With neurological point of view, this phenomenon is explained by the fact that the excitation of neural structures radiating from one modality to another, resulting in a lot of synesthetic sensations - "color" rumor, "taste" the words "smell" the color and other options.Synesthesia is also considered a metaphorical basis of estimates and transfers.

Sensitization sensations able to emerge when comparing the different stimuli.For example, the light figure on a black background will appear white.The plot of gray on a green background will appear reddish, and red - on the contrary, will become green.Vertical lines appear to be more extensive than the horizontal, with the objective of equal length.The contrast of sensations often beat in advertising, painting, fashion design and interior design.

Studies show that sensitization is also dependent on the following factors:

  • Age.The increase in receptor sensitivity can be extended to 30 years and then declines slowly;
  • type of nervous system.For sensitization are more prone people with a weak nervous system, do not have the endurance and stability.
  • endocrine balance.In pregnancy there is sensitization of the olfactory sensations.

temporary sensitization due to an inhibitory state of the cerebral cortex, arising when fatigue.

Perception is involved in the formation of behavior.Change analyzers and relationship experiences sensitivity provide acquisition and processing of information about the world.

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