causative agent of dysentery - Shigella different species.The most severe forms are due to Shigella Grigoriev-Shiga.Bacteria resistant in the environment for a long time preserved and multiply in foods are resistant to some antibiotics, and almost all of sulfonamides.The pathogen causes disease in contact with toxins in the blood.The toxin affects the vascular wall, peripheral nerve ganglia, the sympathetic-adrenal system, liver, central nervous system.
transmission mechanism - fecal-oral.The source of the disease is the people - the sick or MbT.
transmission Path diverse: water, through food (nutritional), contact-household, is not excluded, and the role of flies as vectors of infection.Dysentery is spread through contaminated food, water, dirty hands.Particularly large outbreaks associated with contamination of water ways in various emergency situations, a breakthrough pipes.Milk is also an excellent environment for the development of germs and is important for the transmission.
Infection occurs by ingestion.The incubation period - from 1 to 7 days (usually 2-3 days).The disease is divided into:
1) acute - typical, atypical (gastro-enterokoliticheskuyu), subclinical
2) chronic (recurring, protracted) form
3) postdizenteriynye bowel dysfunction (postdizenteriyny colitis).
Typical forms begin acutely, the phenomena of intoxication: poor appetite, fever, headache, lethargy, spilled dull persistent pain in the abdomen.Then pain and cramping are becoming more intense, localized in the lower divisions, most often on the left or above the pubis.Before defecation pain intensifies, there tenesmus - nagging pains, extending to the sacrum occurring during defecation and continue for 5-15 minutes after.They are caused by inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the rectum ampullar.There are false desires down associated with a lesion of the distal colon, with the act of defecation is delayed and there is a sensation of its incompleteness.On palpation of the abdomen marked tenderness along the colon and spasm of it, especially in the area of the sigmoid colon.Chair - up to 10 times a day - in the beginning is fecal character, then visible admixture of mucus and blood, and in severe cases - mucus with blood.
treatment.In mild cases, patients feel slightly disturbed: the temperature is not above 38 ° C, mild abdominal pain, tenesmus and false desires may not be available.Chair - from 3 to 5 times a day without blood.In this case, hospitalization is not required.When dysentery moderate to severe patients are hospitalized in the infectious department.
chronic dysentery is often the outcome of acute.It arises due to incorrect treatment or lack of it.Dysentery, lasting more than 3 months is considered chronic.It can occur in two ways: as a continuous or relapsing.
relapsing forms: in 2-3 months after acute dysentery newly developing disease.exacerbation periods alternate with periods of complete clinical well-being.During relapse clinic complies mild or moderate form of dysentery.The state of health of patients is not significantly disrupted, the body temperature remains normal or slightly increased.Stool frequency is low (3-5 times a day), false desires are not marked, rarely blood in the stool.Pain and abdominal minor cramping.The pain often associated with walking, shaking and change in body position.
the nervous system marked irritability, emotional instability, sweating, fatigue, sleep disturbance.In remission condition is satisfactory, but retained a functional failure of the intestine: intolerance to milk, spices, abundant, poorly cooked food causes unstable chair.Saved abdominal discomfort.All this is a depressing effect on the psyche.
continuous form chronic dysentery characterized by a constant progression of the disease and the deterioration of the patient's condition.Intestinal dysfunction persists for many years.Develop exhaustion, signs of vitamin deficiencies, anemia.This form is more common in the elderly with comorbidities.
The treatment focuses on diet dysentery.Taking into account the severity of the disease and the severity of intestinal lesions.In severe in the early days of the disease designate table number 4, 46, with the advent of appetite patient is transferred to the table number 2. During the first 10-12 hours in the presence of vomiting starvation advisable.At the same time provide plenty of drink.Patients better to feed frequently - 4-5 times a day in small portions.It depends on the severity of the disease.
Because drugs are used appropriately acting on the pathogens of antibiotics, sulfonamides and other drugs are prescribed depending on the severity and symptoms of the disease.
medicinal herbs and fees (mostly with mild to moderately-severe forms) are actively used.
In mild - to drink a weak infusion of one bay leaf.
can drink the infusion of psyllium (1 cup per day).
1 teaspoon of pounded pomegranate peel brew 1 cup of boiled water.You need to drink during the day in small portions 2 cups.
1 teaspoon herb periwinkle insist 15-20 minutes in 1 cup boiling water.Take 1 tablespoon 2-3 times a day.
Camomile tea is used to treat diarrhea, as an antiseptic and painkiller colitis dysentery.The infusion is prepared at the rate of 15.0 g per cup of boiling water.Take 1 tablespoon 2-3 times a day.
Especially recommended for small children congee rice.It is cooked at the rate of 1 teaspoon 6-7 cups of water
boil, cool, strain and give the child to drink 1/3 cup every 2 hours.
In medical practice, burnet is used for the treatment of acute enterocolitis, dysentery, as an astringent, bactericidal and hemostatic agent.1 tablespoon burnet and pour a glass of boiling water, boil for 30 minutes, cool, filter and take 1 tablespoon 5-6 times a day.
Plantain is used in the treatment of dysentery as bacillary and amoebic.To do this, 1 tablespoon of seeds pour 1/2 cup of boiled water, 30 minutes.Take 1 tablespoon 30 minutes before meals 3 times a day.
used to treat diarrhea aqueous extract of blueberries, blueberry jelly or just fresh berries.Infusions and decoctions of blueberries prepared at the rate of 1-2 teaspoons of dried berries in a glass of boiled water, 10-15 minutes and take several times a day.
decoction of bird-cherry fruit is used internally as a means protivoponosnoe.1 tablespoon brewed in 1 cup boiling water, boil for 20 minutes, filter and take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day.
children Write out 3 days after normalization of stool, the lack of clinical symptoms and normalization of temperature.At the same time bacteriological examination should be carried out.
In chronic dysentery discharge occurs when persistent normalization of the chair within 10 days, the absence of clinical symptoms and negative bacteriological examination.
After hospitalization is a compulsory disinfection at the place of his residence.For contact persons established surveillance for 7 days from the date of separation with the patient.
dysentery prevention is early detection and isolation of the sick.The measure of personal prevention of dysentery is the correct patient care in the treatment of it at home.
very important washing hands before eating, wash fruits and vegetables before eating, boiling milk and water (especially when using water from open sources, as well as milk and bottling purchased on the market or in a store).Patients and dysentery bacteria carriers are not allowed to work at the food enterprises and water supply facilities.If signs of acute gastrointestinal disease should consult a doctor immediately.